quinta-feira, 22 de janeiro de 2009


The Name for "Bat" in the Languages of Europe:
Zoological Name "cheiroptera" (plural of "cheiropteron") = "hand + wing" (3).
Classical Languages
Greek "νυκτερίς" = "the night one".
Latin "vespertilio" = "the little evening one".
Baltic Languages
Latvian "sikspārnis" = "leather wing".
Lithuanian "šikšnosparnis" = "leather wing".
Celtic Languages
Breton "logod dall" = "blind mouse"; "askell-groc'hen" = "skin wing".
Gaelic (A) "iatlu" = ?; "ialtag" = ?; "ialtag-leathair = "? + leather"; "ialtag-anmoch" = "? + evening"; "dialtag" = ?; "dealtag anmoch" = "? + evening"; "feasgar-luch" = "evening mouse".
Irish (A) "ialtóg" = ?; "sciathán leathair" = "leather wing".
Welsh "ystlum" = "a flitch of (bacon)"; "slumyn" = "a flitch of (bacon)"; "ystlumyn bacωn" = "a flitch of bacon" (4).
Finno-Ugric Languages
Hungarian (B) "denevér" = ?; "bőregér" = "leather mouse"; "bőrmadár" = "leather bird"; "szárnyaséger" = "winged mouse".
Saami "girdisáhpán" = "flying mouse"; "náhkkkesoadji" = "leather wing".
Estonian "nahkhiir" = "leather mouse".
Finnish "lepakko" = "the fluttering one"; "siipijalkainen" = "the wingfooted one".
Ingrian "ülākkoi" = "night flutterer".
Karelian "yöliivoi" = "night owl"; "yöläpöi" = "night flutterer".
Karelian Ludic "üölīlakko" = "night flutterer".
Karelian Olonets (Livvi, Aunus) "yöliivoi" = "night owl"; "yöläpöi" = "night flutterer"; "yölepakko" = "night flutterer".
Karelian Tver "yölakko" = "night flutterer".
Livonian "siksparnas" = "leather wing".
Veps "öläpak" = "night flutterer"; "ölapakaine" = "night flutterer"; "öpalak" = "night flutterer".
Votian "ölakko" = "night flutterer".
Germanic Languages
Danish "flagermus" = "flutter mouse".
Dutch "vleermuis" = "flutter mouse".
English (C) "bat" = ?; "rearmouse/reremouse" = "moving mouse" (5); airemouse/airymouse/hairymouse" = "air mouse" (6); "flittermouse/flindermouse/flickermouse" = "flutter mouse".
Flemish "vleermuis" = "flutter mouse".
Frisian "Fleermuus" = "flutter mouse".
German "Fledermaus" = "flutter mouse".
Icelandic "leð(u)rblaka" = "leather rag".
Norwegian " flaggermus" = "flutter mouse".
Swedish "fladdermus" = "flutter mouse"; läderlapp" = "leather rag" (7).
Yiddish "fledermoiz" = "flutter mouse".
Romance Languages
Catalan "rat-penat" = "feathered mouse"; "rata-penada" = "feathered mouse"; "muricech" = "blind mouse".
French "chauve-souris" = (seemingly) "bald mouse", but possibly an alteration of Latin "cawa sorix" = "owl mouse".
Italian "pipistrello" < Old Italian "vipistrello" < Latin "vespertilio" = "the little evening one"; "chirottero" = "hand wing" < Greek "χειρ- = "hand" + "πτερ-" = "wing".
Moldavian (D) "lilijak" = ?.
Portuguese "morcego" = "blind mouse".
Rhaeto-Romanic "volanotte" = "night flyer", "sgolanotg" = "night flyer".
Romanian (D) "liliac" = ?.
Spanish "murciélago" = "blind mouse".
Slavic Languages
>(East Slavic)
Belorussian "kažan" = "the leather one"; "netapyr" = ?.
Russian "letučaja myš'" = "flying mouse" (8); "kožan" = "the leather one"; "netopyr'" = ?.
Ukrainian "kažan" = "the leather one"; "netopyr" = ?.
>(South Slavic)
Bulgarian "prilep" = "the one who sticks, adheres to"; "netopyr" = ?.
Croatian "slijepi miš" = "blind mouse"; "šišmiš" = "? + mouse" (9); "netopir/netopier" = ?.
Macedonian (D) "liljak" = ?
Serbian "slepi miš" = "blind mouse"; "šišmiš" = "? + mouse" (9); (D) "ljiljak" = ?; "netopir" = ?.
Slovene "netopir" = ?.
>(West Slavic)
Czech "netopýr" = ?.
Polabian ?; cf. "netüpar" = "butterfly" (10) (11).
Polish "nietoperz" = ?.
Slovak "netopier" = ?.
Sorbian Lower "njedopyr'" = ?.
Sorbian Upper "njetopyr" = ?.
Other Languages
Albanian "lakuriq nate" = "naked owl".
Basque "saguzar" = "old mouse".
Greek "νυκτεριδα" = "the night one".
Romany "korro šimijako" = "blind mouse"; (D) "lilijako" = ?.
Turkish (E) "yarasa" = ?.

Unclear Etymologies:

(A) Gaelic "iatlu/ialtag/dialtag"; Irish "ialtóg":
The original meaning of these words remains a mystery. Stüber [1998:116] has this to say on the subject: "MIr. íatlu: íatlu "bat", the gender of which is uncertain, does not occur in any Old Irish text. No etymology has been found so far" (14). Quin [1976] has Irish "ialtóg" (he gives the form "ialtóc") as a diminutive of "iatlu" by way of metathesis. MacBain [1982] quotes the Early Irish forms "iathlu" and "iatly", which would support Quin's contention. Maclennan [1925] gives Gaelic "dialtag" as a "by-form of ialtag". Dwelly [1973] also notes the Gaelic compounds "ialtag-anmoch" = "evening + ?" (MacBain [1982] has "dealtag-anmoch") and "ialtag-leathair" = "leather + ?". On the strength of these compound forms, it is hard for me to believe that, in the case of Gaelic "iatlu/ialtag/dialtag" and Irish "ialtóg", we are dealing with "taboo" words. A "taboo" interpretation is rendered less likely for these words in the face of two other Celtic designations, viz. Gaelic "feasgar-luch" = "evening mouse" and Irish "sciathán-leathair" = "leather wing".

(B) Hungarian "denevér":
Benkő [1967-] says the following in his entry for "denevér": "Ismeretlen eredetu". A denevér ~ denevére, tenevér ~ tenevére és teneri alakváltozatok viszonya nincs tisztázva; számos változat népetimológiás alakulás, részben a szót tartalmazó összetételekbo"l. -- Elhomályosult összetételként való magyarázata aligha valószinu", szláv közvetítésen keresztül görög szóra való visszavezetése -- s egyben a lidére és a vámpír szavakkal való távolabbi rokonítása -- téves." Here is an English translation of that passage: "The origin of the word is unknown. The relationship of the forms "denevér~denevére" to "tenevér~tenevére" and "teneri" is not clear. There are a number of folk-etymologies. The explanation that would explain this word as a compound word, which is no longer felt as such, is not very probable. It is also unlikely that it can be traced back to Greek, by way of Slavic mediation, while any connexion with words like "lidére" ("goblin") and "vámpír" is clearly false." It is tempting to see the Hungarian word for "blood", i.e. "vér" (cf. Finnish "veri"), at the end of "denevér". However, I have found no evidence that this is so and the authoritative opinion given above makes no mention of such a possibility. Given that the other common Hungarian words for "bat", viz. "bőregér" = "leather mouse", "bőrmadár" = "leather bird", "szárnyaséger" = "winged mouse", are transparently descriptive words of clear etymology, I see no reason to deem "denevér" a "taboo" word.

(C) English "bat":
According to Kluge [2002] "bat" derives from Scandinavian, cf. Old Swedish "bakka", Old Danish "bakke". Klein [1966] and Weekley [1967] agree with Kluge on this etymology. Old Danish "bakke" often occurs as "aftenbakke" = "evening bat" and Old Swedish "bakka" in the form"nattbakka" = "night bat". Seemingly these Scandinavian words are the "bacon" word. Riegler [1929-1930: 1579-1798] notes dialects in Rheinland-Pfalz and south Hessen which have "Speckmaus" for "bat": "Die Volksmeinung, dass Fledermäuse Speck fressen, war noch zu Ende des 19. Jh. allgemein verbreitet ..., und in der Naturwissenschaft des 18. Jh. wurden Fledermaus und Speckmaus synonym benutzt ..." Riegler [ibid.] agrees with Kluge that "bat" is the "bacon" word: "... geht Fledermaus = 'bat' (schriftengl.) auf mittelengl. 'backe' zurück und wurzelt im german. 'bakon' = Speck ... 'Dieser Vogel (Fledermaus, d.A.) wird eine Speckmauss genennet; weil er den Speck isset, und die Schweineseiten durchnaget." I do not share Riegler's opinion with respect to how the "bacon" ~ "bat" connexion has come about, preferring, for my own part, to make the connexion through the way flitches of bacon are hung. Suspended from the ceiling on hooks, they are reminiscent of the way that "bats" hang when roosting. Cf. the following nursery rhyme from England:
Bat, bat, come under my hat
and I'll give you a piece of bacon,
and when I bake, I'll give you a cake,
if I am not mistaken.
According to Klein [1966], the word "bat" was brought to England by the Vikings, supplanting the Anglo-Saxon word "hrērmus" = "moving mouse", which now only occurs spasmodically in some dialects as "rearmouse" and "reremouse". (5)

(D) Moldavian "lilijak"; Romanian "liliac"; Macedonian "liljak"; Serbian "ljiljak"; Romany "lilijako":
This word is of uncertain origin, but de Cihac [1879] connects it with Czech "lelek" = "nightjar", Polish "lelek" = "nightjar", Russian "lelëk" = "nightjar", all apparently from CS "*lilьkъ" / "*lelьkъ", the etymology of which is in doubt. This connexion is supported by Sławski [1956-] and Vasmer [1986-1987]. Seemingly, in the first instance, the word referred to the bird known as Caprimulgus europaeus. Similar words are found in other Slavic languages and in Albanian and Greek, always denoting a bird, usually a bird of the night. Both the Ukrainian dialectal "lelak" and the Belorussian dialectal "lalak" can, according to Sławski [1956-], denote either "nightjar" or "bat". A "nightjar" is also known in English as a "goatsucker", which represents a direct calque on the Latin "caprimulgus". English is not alone in calquing the Latin, e.g. German "Ziegenmelker", Polish "kozodój", Russian "kozodoj", Finnish "vuohenlypsäjä". Vasmer [1986-1987] says this about the Russian "kozodoj": Книжная калька через нем. Ziegenmelker или польск. kozodój, или же прямо из лат. caprimulgus, греч. αιγοθήλας ; эти названия возникли под влиянием народного поверья, согласно которому эта птица высасывает ночью молоко у коз.

(E) Turkish "yarasa":
According to Eyuboglu [1991] "yarasa" goes back to old Turkish "yarısa", which is of uncertain origin. With respect to the word for "bat", Turkish seems not to have influenced the Indo-European (henceforward: IE) languages within the Balkan Sprachbund, all of which have descriptive words.


MACHIKIRI – na língua ds povos “EÑEPAS” tribo da Amazônia Venezuelana.

Os morcegos, chamados de "Machikirí” pelos Eñepa (tribo amazónica da Venezuela), emitem o som onomatopaico de seu nome, para traçar um mapa acústico que lhe permita voar entre as trevas que os ocultan de seus inimigos. Este animal presente em múltiplas cerámicas prehispánicas da Venezuela, é descrito nos mitos como um homem-animal ligado a origen da cultura, e certamente, por seu costume de habitar em cavernas, relaciona-se-lhe com a pintura rupestre e seus conteúdos mágico-religiosos.
“Paisagens Sonoras da Venezuela” por Carlos Suarez, in escoitar.org